Enosis (Greek: union) refers to the movement of the Greek-Cypriot population to incorporate the island of Cyprus into Greece. In December 1949, the Cypriot Orthodox Church challenged the British colonial government to put the Enosis question to a referendum. The colonial government refused, and the Church proceeded to organize its own referendum in 1950. The referendum took place with an overwhelming majority 95.7% of the people voted in favor of extricating the island from the British Empire and annexing it to the Kingdom of Greece. In 1955, the resistance movement EOKA was formed in Cyprus in order to end British rule and annex the island to Greece.
„EOKA“ („Ethniki Organosis Kiprion Agoniston“ – „National Organization of Cypriot Fighters“), the military wing of the „Enosis“-movement formed by Colonel George Grivas, started in April 1955 a guerrilla campaign against British colonial rule aimed at self-determination and union with Greece (Enosis). The violently attacks were against the British but hit the Turkish Cypriots, too. In response to the growing demand for Enosis, a number of Turkish Cypriots became convinced that the only way to protect their interests and identity of the Turkish Cypriot population in the event of Enosis would be to divide the island into Turkish and Greek portions - a policy known as “Taksim“ (partition). In 1958 the TMT (Türk Mudafa Teskilat = Turkish Defence Organisation) was founded to fight the EOKA activity. Those events created mistrust and civil strife between the two Cypriot communities.
Since 1st of May 2004 Cyprus is a member of the European Union – but the EU-rules are valid only on the territory of the Republic of Cyprus. The application of the acquis has been suspended in Northern Cyprus pending a comprehensive solution since the Turkish Republik of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) is not recognized internationally (only by Turkey) and is considered territory under Turkish military occupation.
- Government Web Portal of the Republic of Cyprus
- Press and Information Office Republic of Cyprus
- Foreign Ministry of the internationally not recognized TRNC
- The European Commission Representation in Cyprus
- British Council Cyprus
- Association for Historical Dialogue and Research
- Cyprus Tourism Organisation
- British High Commission Nicosia
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